Horticulture is the cultivation of plants in gardens or greenhouses, as opposed to the field-scale production of crops characteristic of agriculture. Botany, also called plant science (or plant science), plant biology, or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, phytologist or phytologist is a scientist who specializes in this field. The term botany comes from the ancient Greek word βotsssss (botanic) which means grass, herbs, grass or fodder; βoteseseseeseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseseeseseeseseeseseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseseeseTraditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and psychologists respectively, and the study of these three groups of organisms remains within the scope of interest of the International Botanical Congress.
Currently, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of terrestrial plants, of which about 391,000 are vascular plants (including about 369,000 species of flowering plants) and approximately 20,000 are bryophytes. Horticulture is the science and art of the development, sustainable production, marketing and use of high-value food and ornamental plants that are intensively cultivated. Horticulture, branch of plant agriculture that deals with horticultural crops, usually fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants. The word derives from the Latin hortus, “garden” and “colere”, to cultivate.
As a general term, it encompasses all forms of garden management, but in ordinary use it refers to intensive commercial production. In terms of scale, horticulture falls between domestic gardening and field agriculture, although all forms of cultivation naturally have close links. A botanist is a scientist who studies plants. Botanists may also be referred to as plant scientists, plant biologists, or “phytologists”.
They include a wide range of individuals and groups who cultivate, garden, research, advise and enjoy the abundance of horticultural plants for their nutrition, health benefits and aesthetics. It covers types of green landscapes, such as sports and recreational lawns, street trees or gardens, urban forests, shrubs, herbaceous plants or annual borders of plants that will “give birth”, green walls and roofs, and designs “naturalized” meadows. In the tropics of Asia and parts of Central and South America, the dominant features of gardens are flowering trees, shrubs and climbing plants. The Padua Botanical Garden of 1545 is generally considered to be the first to still be found in its original location.
Many species of kalanchoe from southern Africa and Madagascar are excellent gardening species in their own right. Horticulture is a branch of botany and an applied science that focuses on edible and ornamental plants. They were the forerunners of the first botanic gardens attached to universities, founded in from the 1540s. There are also green jobs in private and community gardens, municipal parks, and state or national reserves.
The particular features, such as rose gardens, herbaceous borders, annual borders, wooded gardens and rock gardens, are also those of temperate gardens. These gardens maintained the practical value of previous physical gardens, often associated with monasteries, in which plants were cultivated for supposedly medicinal uses. Many also accept degrees in a related field, such as environmental science, natural resource management, forestry, or horticulture. The UK's first scientific centre of excellence dedicated to horticulture is open to the public and protects the future of plants, people and the planet at the iconic RHS Garden Wisley.
Environmental horticulture offers a variety of ecological career paths, such as greenhouse production, wholesale brokers, commercial nurseries, garden centers, flower shops, and landscape design and construction companies.